Tuesday, September 30, 2014
CDC Confirms first U.S. diagnosed case of Ebola/Possible Second case being investigated | CDC/guardian/Reuters
Breaking Ebola News:
The patient is in a special isolation section of the Intensive Care Unit and is being watched through glass walls. Officials say an important part of his treatment is making sure he is well hydrated.
After confirmation on the virus, the City of Dallas was put on Level 2: High Readiness. The City is now working closely with DCHHS and the CDC - DFW CBSLocal
U.S. Ebola patient didn't give travel history, hospital didn't ask
Possible Second patient is being monitored in DFW area - WFAA
"Ultimately, we are all connected by the air we breathe." - Dr Frieden, Director - CDC
About 4 days passed between when the man fell ill and when he was isolated
Patient traveled from Liberia via Brussels, Belgium - Reuters
We discussed the Real Facts about Ebola HF on #SitPrep on Monday.
Americans will realize that we CANNOT rely on MM Media (Mass Market) or our own Govt to give us the Facts, Treatment, Cure, or Prevention.
When it comes to Disasters, Outbreaks, or Emergency Situations, YOU are your own First Responder.
We are re-posting the entire Articles from USA Emergency Broadcasting here.
Stay Ready for #Ebola.
How Bad is the 2014 Ebola Outbreak? WHO Disease Update 2014.08.11:
Between 7 and 9 August 2014, 69 new cases (lab-confirmed, probable, and suspect cases) of EVD and 52 deaths were reported from the four countries as follows:
Guinea, 11 new cases and 6 deaths; Liberia, 45 new cases and 29 deaths; Nigeria, 0 new cases and 0 deaths; and Sierra Leone, 13 new cases and 17 deaths. (Latest case numbers may not be reflected in the above graph)
As Seen on 'Survival Mom'...
by USAEBN 14.08.2014
There is always a possibility that Ebola Virus can come over and begin infect people in the US, However that chance is extremely low. The United States is an industrial nation and being so, we have a high quality sanitation program. This fact alone, helps prevents the spread of the Ebola Virus. Another major factor that will help control this virus is the fact that our hospital care system is the best in the world. We have positive air pressure isolation wards / rooms, we dispose of our dead with sanitation in mind and most health care is completed in a hospital, unlike in Africa where most of their health care is conducted in the home or village.
The Ebola Virus IS NOT AIRBORNE! The disease is transmitted by bodily fluids only! This means blood, saliva, tears, spittle, and human waste. In America, we only come into contact with another person’s bodily fluids if we choose to do so! This in effect will decrease the spread of the Ebola virus by itself.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) is one of numerous Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. It is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).
|Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to Ebola virus though 8-10 days is most common. Some who become sick with Ebola HF are able to recover, while others do not. |
The reasons behind this are not yet fully understood. However, it is known that patients who die usually have not developed a significant immune response to the virus at the time of death. - WHO
Ebola HF is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. When infection occurs, symptoms usually begin abruptly. The first Ebolavirus species was discovered in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo near the Ebola River. Since then, outbreaks have appeared sporadically.
There are five identified subspecies of Ebolavirus. Four of the five have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire
ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans.
The natural reservoir host of Ebola viruses remains unknown. However, on the basis of available evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is zoonotic (animal-borne) with bats being the most likely reservoir. Four of the five subtypes occur in an animal host native to Africa.
A host of similar species is probably associated with Reston virus, which was isolated from infected cynomolgous monkeys imported to the United States and Italy from the Philippines. Several workers in the Philippines and in US holding facility outbreaks became infected with the virus, but did not become ill.
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Because the natural reservoir of Ebola viruses has not yet been proven, the manner in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak is unknown. However, researchers have hypothesized that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal.
When an infection does occur in humans, there are several ways in which the virus can be transmitted to others. These include:
direct contact with the blood or secretions of an infected person
exposure to objects (such as needles) that have been contaminated with infected secretions
The viruses that cause Ebola HF are often spread through families and friends because they come in close contact with infectious secretions when caring for ill persons.
During outbreaks of Ebola HF, the disease can spread quickly within health care settings (such as a clinic or hospital). Exposure to Ebola viruses can occur in health care settings where hospital staffs are not wearing appropriate protective equipment, such as masks, gowns, and gloves.
Proper cleaning and disposal of instruments, such as needles and syringes, is also important. If instruments are not disposable, they must be sterilized before being used again. Without adequate sterilization of the instruments, virus transmission can continue and amplify an outbreak.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of Ebola HF typically include:
· Joint and muscle aches
· Stomach pain
· Lack of appetite
Some patients may experience:
· Red Eyes
· A Rash
· Sore throat
· Chest pain
· Difficulty breathing
· Difficulty swallowing
· Bleeding inside and outside of the body
Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to Ebola virus though 8-10 days is most common.
Some who become sick with Ebola HF are able to recover, while others do not. The reasons behind this are not yet fully understood. However, it is known that patients who die usually have not developed a significant immune response to the virus at the time of death.
Risk of ExposureIn Africa, confirmed cases of Ebola HF have been reported in:
· Sierra Leone
· Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
· South Sudan
· Ivory Coast
· Republic of the Congo (ROC)
· South Africa (imported)
The natural reservoir host of Ebola viruses, and the manner in which transmission of the virus to humans occurs, remain unknown. This makes risk assessment in endemic areas difficult. With the exception of several laboratory contamination cases (one in England and two in Russia), all cases of human illness or death have occurred in Africa; no case has been reported in the United States.
During outbreaks of Ebola HF, those at highest risk include health care workers and the family and friends of an infected individual. Health care workers in Africa should consult the Infection Control for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers In the African Health Care Setting to learn how to prevent and control infections in these setting. Medical professionals in the United States should consult the Interim Guidance for Managing Patients with Suspected Viral Hemorrhagic Fever in U.S. Hospitals.
Diagnosing Ebola HF in an individual who has been infected for only a few days is difficult, because the early symptoms, such as red eyes and a skin rash, are nonspecific to Ebola virus infection and are seen often in patients with more commonly occurring diseases.
However, if a person has the early symptoms of Ebola HF and there is reason to believe that Ebola HF should be considered, the patient should be isolated and public health professionals notified. Samples from the patient can then be collected and tested to confirm infection.
Laboratory tests used in diagnosis include:
Timeline of Infection
Diagnostic tests available
Within a few days after symptoms begin
· Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) testing
· IgM ELISA
· Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
· Virus isolation
Later in disease course or after recovery
· IgM and IgG antibodies
Retrospectively in deceased patients
· Immunohistochemistry testing
· Virus isolation
Standard treatment for Ebola HF is still limited to supportive therapy. This consists of:
- Balancing the patient’s fluids and electrolytes
- Maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure
- Treating them for any complicating infections
Timely treatment of Ebola HF is important but challenging since the disease is difficult to diagnose clinically in the early stages of infection. Because early symptoms such as headache and fever are nonspecific to Ebola viruses, cases of Ebola HF may be initially misdiagnosed.
However, if a person has the early symptoms of Ebola HF and there is reason to believe that Ebola HF should be considered, the patient should be isolated and public health professionals notified. Supportive therapy can continue with proper protective clothing until samples from the patient are tested to confirm infection.
Experimental treatments have been tested and proven effective in animal models but has not yet been used in humans.
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The prevention of Ebola HF presents many challenges. Because it is still unknown how exactly people are infected with Ebola HF, there are few established primary prevention measures.
When cases of the disease do appear, there is increased risk of transmission within health care settings. Therefore, health care workers must be able to recognize a case of Ebola HF and be ready to employ practical viral hemorrhagic fever isolation precautions or barrier nursing techniques. They should also have the capability to request diagnostic tests or prepare samples for shipping and testing elsewhere.
MSF (Médecins Sans Frontières) health staff in protective clothing constructing perimeter for isolation ward.
Barrier nursing techniques include:
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- Wearing of protective clothing (such as masks, gloves, gowns, and goggles)
- The use of infection-control measures (such as complete equipment sterilization and routine use of disinfectant)
- Isolation of Ebola HF patients from contact with unprotected persons.
The aim of all of these techniques is to avoid contact with the blood or secretions of an infected patient. If a patient with Ebola HF dies, it is equally important that direct contact with the body of the deceased patient be prevented.
CDC, in conjunction with the World Health Organization, has developed a set of guidelines to help prevent and control the spread of Ebola HF. Entitled Infection Control for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers In the African Health Care Setting, the manual describes how to:
· Recognize cases of viral hemorrhagic fever (such as Ebola HF)
· Prevent further transmission in health care setting by using locally available materials and minimal financial resources.
· Avoid areas of known outbreaks. Before traveling to Africa, find out about current epidemics by checking the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
Wash your hands frequently. As with other infectious diseases, one of the most important preventive measures is frequent hand-washing. Use soap and water, or use alcohol-based hand rubs containing at least 60 percent alcohol when soap and water aren't available.
Avoid bush meat. In developing countries, avoid buying or eating the wild animals, including nonhuman primates, sold in local markets.
Avoid contact with infected people. In particular, caregivers should avoid contact with the person's body fluids and tissues, including blood, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva. People with Ebola or Marburg are most contagious in the later stages of the disease.
Follow infection-control procedures. If you're a health care worker, wear protective clothing, such as gloves, masks, gowns and eye shields. Keep infected people isolated from others. Dispose of needles and sterilize other instruments.
Don't handle remains. The bodies of people who have died of Ebola or Marburg disease are still contagious. Specially organized and trained teams should bury the remains, using appropriate safety equipment.
USA EBN Emergency Operations Center will continue to monitor this outbreak and report any significant changes to you on our digital broadcasting station and website / social media outlets.
During any type of disaster, relief organizations like the Red Cross and FEMA will not be able to get to you for a few days, so it is up to the individual to prepare for his family during times of crises. The need to educate the public on the basic of Disaster Preparedness is critical. It is not up to the government alone to provide this information, but local communities and businesses must step up to the plate and help educate the local populace.
AT USAEBN Our Motto is:
Disaster Preparedness is as Simple as A-B-C
A - Always be informed by listening to USA Emergency Broadcasting Network
B - Build a Disaster Kit ; USA EBN Marketplace has the equipment that you need
C- Create a Family Emergency Plan; Attend training offered by USA EBN Prep Academy
- See more at: http://madtownpreppers.blogspot.com/2014/07/biological-alert-ebola-outbreak-kills.html#sthash.GPT642db.dpuf
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